Cleaning Solution: washing or wiping down environmental surfaces such as floors, seats, benches, walls, and ceilings with a mixture of soap (or detergent) and water, with or without a chemical disinfectant.

Sterilisation: the highest level of decontamination. This kills all microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi and bacterial spores. Tools that come into contact with bodily fluids require sterilisation. This is a difficult process to maintain but should be carried out on all tools, especially if they have been in contact with blood.

Disinfection: the process of killing most microorganisms on hard, non-porous surfaces.

Sanitation: the process of significantly reducing the number of pathogens found on a surface such as cleaning with soap or using alcohol pads. It is the lowest form of decontamination and is safe to use on the skin. This process will remove soil, dust, dirt and organic matter along with a large proportion of micro- organisms from an object.

Any item that is used on a client must be disinfected or discarded after each use. Items that cannot be disinfected must be discarded. Non-porous tools must be sterilised after each use.

Disinfectants are chemical agents used to destroy microorganisms on hard, non-porous surfaces. To use a disinfectant properly, read and follow the manufacturer’s instructions. Completely immerse the tools for the required amount of time and never reuse disinfectant solutions.

Dealing with bodily fluids: if blood or body fluids have to be mopped, ensure that disposable gloves, apron and disposable paper are used. All disposable items should then be placed in a yellow plastic sack and destroyed by incineration.

Neat chlorine bleach should be used as the sterilising agent on blood spills. The bleach treatment will destroy the viruses, which will cause AIDS and Hepatitis B.

Three categories of medical devices and their associated level of disinfection:
Critical: A device that enters typically sterile tissue or comes into contact with bodily
fluids such as blood. Sterilization, which is defined as the complete annihilation of all microbial life, should be performed on such devices. Implements such as microblading tools, come done extractors, surgical implements, and so on.